What's the number one problem area for writers in apa style numbers whether it's spelling them out or writing them as numerals, numbers are a common source of errors in research papers this is surprising in a way, because the basic approach to numbers in apa style is very simple: use words for. Although usage varies, most people spell out numbers that can be expressed in one or two words and use figures for other numbers note: if you are using a specific citation style, such as mla or apa, consult the style manual for specific formatting instructions words over two pounds six million dollars. The basic rules writing percentages reporting results that include numbers writing numbers that are accompanied by measurements writing long if you are not required to strictly follow a particular style (such as apa), you may have some flexibility to modify the guidelines presented in this article. The apa version 6 style manual has an entire section starting from 431 on how to present numbers in text the manual does include a general rule that numbers 10 and above should be expressed as numerals, but there are a wide range of exceptions should be expressed as numerals any number in an. Apa essentials (6th edition) write the number as a numeral: 1 numbers 1-9: one , two three 2 never start a sentence with a number or a percent spell it out 3 common fractions (two-thirds majority) 4 ordinal numbers (fourth graders first item) write a number 1 10 or greater 2 if has units after it (25.
. Expressing numbers: apa use numerals for the following: 1 numbers below ten involved in comparisons with larger numbers and instances of the same item later in the paragraph, eg, halu asked 5 of the 10 hockey players to help him pick up a girl the 5 pretended to attack him to gain her sympathy. The two styles have very different rules for when to write numbers as words or numerals mla style spells out numbers that can be written in one or two words ( three, fifteen, seventy-six, one thousand, twelve billion) and to use numerals for other numbers (2¾ 584 1,001 25,000,000) apa style, on the.
The general rule governing apa style on the use of numbers is to use figures to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10 (apa, 2001, p 122) this general rule applies to cardinal numbers (whole counting numbers) and their ordinal counterparts (first through ninth) (128. (p 276) nonetheless, the debate about the significance of placebo effect continues among doctors check the apa manual for further information about style requirements for numbers use numerals to express • numbers 10 and above • numbers immediately in front of a type of measurement (a 5-mg dose with 50 cm. The publication manual of the american psychological association (apa) is silent on this issue however, we can reasonably assume that the apa's recommendation for general numbers, which states that numbers ten and above should be expressed as numerals unless they start a sentence, also applies to centuries3.
Numbers apa rules for numbers state: use figures for numbers 10 and above ( 12 of the subjects) for numbers above and below 10 grouped for comparison (2 of 16 responses) for numbers representing time, dates, and age (3 years ago, 2 hr 15 min) for numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table ( table 3. Slight but important mechanical differences exist among in-text citation practices, in particular when you are trying to conform to a specific style, such as mla ( modern language association) or apa (american psychological association) for example, mla style requires you to provide the page number of your citation in-text. Basics of numbers per apa 431 to 438, write out numbers as words to express numbers up to nine (eg, three, seven, eight), and use numerals to express numbers 10 or above (eg, 11, 23, 256) take the apa style diagnostic quiz to test your knowledge.
The american psychological association, also known as the apa, sets forth a standard or style of writing to which many disciplines, and especially scientific disciplines, conform the apa style is strongly suited to tackling formatting issues for disciplines that rely heavily on the usage of numbers to make. When to write out the number: if a number starts a sentence, title or text heading, utilize words, but apa guidelines suggest reword- ing the sentence whenever possible in order to avoid starting the sentence with a number (432) example: ten students earned an a, but 10 others received a b or below.